Word Bank: Enlightenment,Safavid, Indian National Congress, Ottoman, Islam, Great Britain, Kulaks, Song, Liberals, Vladimir I
1-The final set of treaties that ended the First World War included the formation of a League of Nations (an international peace-keeping organization) that the United States refused to join; the Treaty of Versailles that forced Germany to accept blame for the war (a War Guilt Clause) and to pay reparations to the victorious Allies; the division of Austria-Hungary into a Germanic Austria as well as independent states of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia; and the end of the ________ Empire.However, Russia was most definitely NOT rewarded for its service to the Allies because with its Bolshevik Revolution; Russia had dropped out of the war, signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Germans, and embraced Marxist ideology.
2-The three Muslim Empires of the early modern era (Ottoman, ________, and Mughal) had many similarities such as all were derived from Turkic nomadic cultures of the Central Asian steppe; all depended on the effective use of firearms and gunpowder on the battlefield and in siege warfare; all produced a flowering Islamic civilization; and all supported their bureaucracies and military with taxes levied on the peoples of their agrarian societies, societies that each conquered and ruled.Of course, there were differences.One of these Empires adhered to Shi’a Islam.
3-Economic developments that occurred during the period of commercial expansion in the T’ang and _______ Dynasties of China included a series of technological breakthroughs; increasing trading activities carried out by Chinese sailors and ships; enlarged market quarters in all cities and major towns; and a growing sophistication in commercial organization and forms of credit.
4-The Kievan ruler, ________, preferred Orthodox Christianity to Roman Catholicism because he believed that Roman Catholicism implied papal interference, while Orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state.Indeed, Kievan Russia’s religious culture and social and economic patterns developed separately from Western Europe’s.Of course by 1236, Kievan Russia was conquered by the Mongols.Mongol rule in Kiev was particularly harsh because the Kievans had resisted paying the tribute and ultimately, the Mongols favoured Moscow which emerged as the centre of the new Russian state after the era of the "Golden Horde."
5-The following statements concerning the ethical system of early _______ are correct: It stressed the dignity of all believers and their equality in the eyes of Allah; it stressed the responsibility of the wealthy and strong to care for the poor and weak; a tax for charity was obligatory; and it recognized the truth of similar ethical ideas in Judaism and Christianity.According to this religion, Muhammad is the "Seal of the Prophets" or the final prophet and the Islamic umma or community transcends old tribal boundaries, making possible political unity among Arab clans.
6-The causes of the French Revolution included the influence of the ________ and its philosophers urging the need to limit the powers of the monarchy, aristocracy, and the Catholic Church; the middle class demand for greater political representation; the peasant desire for freedom from manorialism; and the inequity of the class system [the Estates System].The Revolution began in 1789.On July 14th, the political prison known as the Bastille was stormed; providing a revolutionary symbol.During the radical phase of the Revolution [known as the Reign of Terror and under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre], the king was executed and the titles of nobility were abolished.The final phase of the Revolution was ushered in by Napoleon Bonaparte.
7-________ would espouse the following statement: "The political goals of greatest significance are the establishment of constitutional rule and the extension of the parliamentary franchise to propertied men of the middle class."However, socialists would espouse, "As long as property is controlled by private individuals, inequality will exist.It is the role of the state to manage property for the benefit of all citizens."
8-The Industrial Revolution began in ________ because it possessed natural resources such as coal and iron, strong capital reserves from previous trade, faith in human progress and in human ability to dominate nature, and the existence of a large peasant class.The first industry in Great Britain to experience industrialization was the textile industry.
9-The wealthy, commercially oriented peasants who controlled most of Russian land were called the _______.In 1929 the Soviet government began a drive for rapid collectivization of agriculture. These wealthy peasants vigorously opposed the efforts to force the peasants to give up their small privately owned farms and join large cooperative agricultural establishments. At the end of 1929 a campaign to "liquidate the [these peasants] as a class" was launched by the government. By 1934, when approximately 75 percent of the farms in the Soviet Union had been collectivized, most these peasants - as well as millions of other peasants who had opposed collectivization - had been deported to remote regions of the Soviet Union or arrested and their land and property confiscated.
10-In 1885, regional associations of Western-educated Indians came together to form the _________.In the 1920s and 1930s, this group was led by Mohandas K. Gandhi who promoted nonviolent noncooperation to protest British rule of India. Much of the group’s civil disobedience was implemented through the All India Congress Committee, formed in 1929, which advocated tax avoidance to protest British rule.When independence was achieved, Jawaharlal Nehru dominated the group as did his daughter, Indira Gandhi.
1-The White Huns occupied Bactria and prepared to cross the Hindu Kush into India during the 4th and 5th centuries.Their invasions reduced the _______ Empire into an empty name.The cost of self-defense drained the financial resources of the empire and the weakened dynasty could no longer sustain itself.Initially, this empire repelled the Huns, but by the end of the 5th century, the empire was too weak to organize resistance and the Huns moved across the Hindu Kush almost at will, establishing several kingdoms in northern and western India.This Indian Empire had risen to power in Magadha and unlike the Maurya Empire, was relatively decentralized.However, a golden age had occurred during this empire with significant advances in mathematics and science.
2-It is known as "the greater vehicle" and spread to central and east Asia.Its notion of a bodhisattva or "enlightened being" made it attractive to new converts.A bodhisattva was an individual who intentionally delayed entry into nirvana to help others struggling to get there.Theologians in this tradition began to teach that bodhisattvas could perform good deeds on behalf of others, thus opening up the possibility of salvation to the masses.Yes, _______ literally meant "the greater vehicle," so called because it could carry more people to salvation.In later centuries, it also became established in central Asia, China, Korea, and Japan.It is one of the two major schools of Buddhism (the other school is Theravada or Hinayana) but both schools share basic concepts of Buddhist doctrine such as the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, and nirvana.
3-The _______, a Mayan creation myth, taught that the gods created humans out of maize and water.The Mayas believed that the gods maintained agricultural cycles in exchange for honors and sacrifices.Besides sacrificing captives, the Mayas also engaged in voluntary bloodletting.The Mayas developed an accurate calendar and created the most sophisticated of all early systems of writing in the Americas.Their script contained both ideographic elements and symbols for syllables.Tikal was the most important political center of the Mayas with its plazas, pyramids, and palaces.But in 800 C.E., the Mayas began to desert their cities for reasons still unknown to historians.
4-________ was a Persian religion that honoured Ahura Mazda ("Wise Lord").Followers believed in a cosmic struggle between Ahura Mazda and the Angra Mainyu ("the destructive spirit").This important religion in the history of religions developed significant religious concepts such as a future judgement and of heavenly paradise or hell as reward or punishment.It allowed followers to enjoy the world and its fruits, so long as individuals abided by the moral teachings of "good words, good thoughts, good deeds."Its teachings had a substantial influence on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
5-_______ were highly specialized historians of Africa who, as counselors of kings, were commissioned to memorize the past and transmit it orally from generation to generation.The lengthy epic of Sundiata, the founder of the Mali Empire of the 13th century, was preserved by these "oral historians".The epic relates Sundiata’s great victory over another kingdom as well as his grand celebration and his return to his hometown, the capital city at Niani.Besides the capital Niani, many other cities of this prosperous kingdom existed on important caravan routes (Trans-Saharan trade routes).
6-______, seasonal winds, were vital in Indian agriculture.Indeed Indian agriculture depended on the rains these winds brought in the spring and summer.The rains, supplemented by irrigation during the dry months, made food production possible in much of the subcontinent.
7-_______, a significant Chinese philosopher, believed in Ren or a sense of humanity; Li or a sense of propriety, and Xiao or filial piety.He concentrated on the formation of Junzi or "superior individuals".Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.) was a principal spokesman for the Confucian school and he advocated government by benevolence and humanity.
8-Under persecution, Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina.Muhammad’s flight is known as the _______ and is the starting point of the Islamic calendar.Muhammad eventually returned to Mecca and imposed a government dedicated to Allah.He destroyed the pagan shrines and built mosques.However, the Ka’ba shrine was not destroyed.In 632, Muhammad led the first Islamic pilgrimage to the Ka’ba which had been rededicated to the one God, Allah with all other idols being destroyed.
9-During the _______ period in Japan (794-1185 C.E.), the capital was moved to this city (modern Kyoto) in 794.The Japanese emperors became ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority but effective power was in the hands of the Fujiwara family.The emperor did not rule and Chinese learning dominated Japanese education and political thought.The Tale of the Genji, a novel, was published and it is important to note that women contributed most to Japanese literature and writing during this time period.
10-_______ and junks dominated Indian Ocean trade in the post-classical era.The first ship in this sentence was a lateen-rigged ship with one or two masts, used in the Indian Ocean.A lateen is a triangular sail.These ships averaged 100 tons in 1000 C.E. and 400 tons in 1500.Larger ships plied Indian Ocean and no longer needed to follow coastal lines.Large Chinese and southeast Asian junks also sailed the Ocean.
Word Bank: Nationalism,New Economic Policy (N.E.P.), Karl Marx, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Margaret Sanger, Soviet Union, Mustafa Kemal, Alexander Kerensky, Albert Einstein, Theodore Herzl
1-In early March 1917 (February by the old Russian calendar) food ran out in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), the capital.Housewives and women factory workers staged mass demonstrations.Soldiers mutinied and joined striking workers to form soviets (councils) to take over factories and barracks.A few days later the tsar of Russia abdicated, and leaders of the parliamentary parties, led by ________, formed a Provisional Government.Thus, began what Russians called the "February Revolution."But the Provisional Government continued Russian involvement in World War I; and when Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks (communists) promised "Bread, Peace, and Land," a war-weary Russia listened.On November 6, 1917 (October 24th in the Russian calendar), the second Russian revolution began.
2-The Bolsheviks sued for peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary.By the ________, signed on March 3, 1918, Russia lost territories containing a third of its population and wealth.Poland, Finland, and the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) became independent republics.Leon Trotsky, the leader of the Red Army, tried to persuade the reluctant Bolsheviks to adopt a policy under which Russia would leave the war but sign no peace treaty ("neither war nor peace").However, Lenin, realizing that the new Soviet state was too weak to survive a continuation of the war, threatened to resign if the German terms were not met.
3-Years of warfare, revolution, and mismanagement ruined the Russian economy.By 1921, it had declined to one-sixth of its pre-World War I level.Factories and railroads had shut down for lack of fuel, raw materials, and parts.Farmland had been devastated, and livestock killed, causing hunger in the cities.Finding himself master of a country in ruin, Vladimir Lenin decided to release the economy from party and government control.In March 1921, he announced the ________.It allowed peasants to own land and sell their crops, private merchants to trade, and private workshops to produce goods and sell them on the free market.Only the biggest businesses, such as banks, railroads, and factories, remained under government ownership.But this policy reflected no change in the ultimate goals of the Communist Party.It merely provided breathing space, what Lenin called "two steps back to advance one step forward."
4-In the modern era, a nationalist movement called Zionism, led by _______, arose among those who wanted to return to their ancestral homeland in Palestine.The concept of a Jewish homeland appealed to many Europeans, Jews and Gentiles alike, as a humanitarian solution to the problem of anti-Semitism.
5-________, known as Atatürk, was eager to modernize and westernize the new nation of Turkey, which had emerged out of the ashes of the Ottoman Empire.Atatürk was eager to bring Turkey closer to Europe as quickly as possible.He abolished the sultanate, declared Turkey a secular republic, and introduced European laws.In a radical break with Islamic tradition, he suppressed Muslim courts, schools, and religious orders and replaced the Arabic alphabet with the Latin alphabet.He even attempted to westernize the traditional Turkish family.Women received civil equality, including the right to vote and to be elected to the national assembly.He forbade polygamy and instituted civil marriage and divorce.He even changed people’s clothing, strongly discouraging women from veiling their faces, and replaced the fez, until then the traditional Turkish men’s hat, with the European brimmed hat.
6-After the First World War, women were active in many other areas besides the suffrage movement.Among the most controversial, and eventually most effective of the reformers, were those who advocated contraception, such as the American _______, (1883-1966).Her campaign brought her into conflict with the authorities who equated birth control with pornography.Finally, in 1923, she was able to found a birth control clinic in New York.In France, however, the government prohibited contraception and abortion in 1920 in an effort to increase the birthrate and make up for the loss of so many young men in the war.Only the Russian Communists allowed abortion for ideological reasons.
7-Ho Chi Minh and Mao Tse-tung both borrowed their ideologies from ________.Ho Chi Minh became the father of modern Vietnam, while Mao founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949.Both borrowed heavily from ideas about workers needing to overthrow imperialist capitalists.
8-The great twentieth-century physicist credited with the theory of relativity is _________.The older model of Newtonian physics was rethought when this individual published his theory of relativity in the early twentieth century.He theorized that matter, space, and time were not fixed but relative to one another.New theories about the nature of light and the universe followed.This amounted to a revolution in terms of human understanding of the universe.
9-The nation that experienced the most casualties during World War II was the _________.It is estimated that over 50 million people died in World War II.The war between Germany and this nation was particularly gruesome and hard-fought, and left as many as 20 million dead in this nation.Both sides set aside the conventional rules of combat and fought one another without restraint.While many more individuals in this nation died in the battles fought, the Germans were eventually invaded by this nation and defeated in 1945.
10-The most influential factor in the weakening of European empires after 1945 was the rise of _________ that was prompted by both world wars.The Age of Imperialism was at its peak prior to World War I as European nations competed for foreign territories in Asia and Africa.Both World War I and World War II dealt severe blows to European powers and also encouraged Asian and African independence movements.Even victorious powers such as Britain and France suffered greatly in fighting the long and costly wars of the twentieth century.After 1945, they tried unsuccessfully to retain their empires but no longer had the will or resources to do so.One by one, Asian and African nations fought for and won their independence.By 1970, little was left of European power in the Southern and Eastern hemispheres.
Word Bank: Nikita Khrushchev,Wannsee Conference, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Taiping Rebellion, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Peace of Westphalia, Peasants, Matteo Ricci, Great Depression, "Velvet Revolution"
1-The _______ was the European settlement of 1648 that brought to an end the Thirty Years’ War. It confirmed the Peace of Augsburg which had granted Lutherans religious tolerance in the Holy Roman Empire and which had been rescinded by the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II in his Edict of Restitution (1629). Moreover, the peace settlement extended the Peace of Augsburg’s provisions for religious toleration to the Reformed (Calvinist) church, thus securing toleration for the three great religious communities of the Holy Roman Empire: Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist.
2-In 1600, _______ finished the process of unifying Japan.In 1603, the powerless but prestigious imperial court, which over the years had dutifully assigned him titles that reflected his growing power, appointed him shogun, thereby acknowledging that he was the most powerful daimyo in Japan and officially authorized to keep the peace in the emperor’s name. By 1612, however, certain diplomatic incidents had convinced this old soldier that Christian missionaries in Japan were, potentially at least, part of a secular threat to the political order that he had so laboriously constructed, and in the next two years he took steps to stop missionary activity and discourage the practice of their religion. He started a trend that his successors were to pursue for three decades, until Christianity was nearly eradicated in Japan and only a token foreign trade survived at Nagasaki.
3-In The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven, ________ argued that the doctrines of Confucius and Jesus were very close to each other.This Italian Jesuit missionary introduced Christian teaching to the Chinese empire in the 16th century. He lived in China for nearly thirty years and was a pioneer in the attempt at mutual comprehension between China and the West. By adopting the language and culture of the country, he gained entrance to the interior of China, which was normally closed to foreigners.
4-The leader of the _______ was Hong Xiuquan.When this religious prophet and leader failed the civil service exam for the third time in 1837, the strain was more than he could bear. He suffered an emotional collapse. During a delirium that lasted several days, he had several visions. Later, he came to believe that during his illness he had been transported to heaven and had spoken to Jesus Christ.Hong came to believe that he was the second son of God, sent to save China.He proclaimed his new dynasty, the Taiping Tianguo ("Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace").His followers grew from a ragged band of a few thousand to a fanatical but highly disciplined army of more than a million, divided into separate divisions of men and women soldiers. Men and women were considered equal but were allowed no contact with one another.After Hong’s army captured the great central China city of Nanjing on March 10, 1853, he decided to halt his troops and make the city his permanent capital, renaming it Tianjing ("Heavenly Capital"). A northern expedition to capture the Qing capital at Beijing failed and eventually this leader committed suicide.
5-On Black Thursday, October 24, 1929, the U.S. Stock Market crashed; contributing to the _______ of the 1930s.Many factors likely contributed to the collapse of the stock market. Among the more prominent causes were the period of rampant speculation (those who had bought stocks on margin not only lost the value of their investment, they also owed money to the entities that had granted the loans for the stock purchases), tightening of credit by the Federal Reserve, the proliferation of holding companies and investment trusts (which tended to create debt), a multitude of large bank loans that could not be liquidated, and an economic recession that had begun earlier in the summer.
6-The leader of the Arab world in the 1950’s and 1960’s was ________. This army officer, prime minister (1954-56), and then president (1956-70) of Egypt became a controversial leader of the Arab world, creating the short-lived United Arab Republic (1958-61), twice fighting wars with Israel (1956, 1967), and engaging in such inter-Arab policies as mediating the Jordanian civil war (1970).The Aswan Dam was built with the help of the Soviet Union under his leadership and began operating in 1968. In addition, 20th-century life was introduced into many villages; industrialization was accelerated; land reforms broke up Egypt’s large private estates; a partially successful campaign was conducted against corruption; and women were accorded more rights than they had ever had, including the right to vote.In foreign affairs, he joined Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Jawaharlal Nehru of India as an advocate of nonalignment, or "positive neutrality." At the Bandung Conference of Asian and African nations in 1955, he emerged as a world figure.
7-At the _______, the Nazis put in place the Final Solution.At this meeting of Nazi officials on January 20, 1942, in a Berlin suburb, the Nazis planned the "final solution" to the so-called "Jewish question".The conference marked a turning point in Nazi policy toward the Jews. An earlier idea, to deport all of Europe’s Jews to the island of Madagascar, off of Africa, was abandoned as impractical in wartime. Instead, the newly planned final solution would entail rounding up all Jews throughout Europe, transporting them eastward, and organizing them into labor gangs. The work and living conditions would be sufficiently hard as to fell large numbers by "natural diminution"; those that survived would be "treated accordingly."The Nazi leaders understood that "evacuation to the east" was a euphemism for concentration camps and that the "final solution" was to be the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews, which is now known as the Holocaust.
8-An active policy of de-Stalinization was begun in 1956 by _______.On February 25, 1956, during the 20th Party Congress in Moscow, this Soviet leader delivered his memorable secret speech about the excesses of Stalin’s one-man rule, attacking the late Soviet ruler’s "intolerance, his brutality, his abuse of power." The spectacle of the first secretary of the Communist Party exposing the wrongful executions of the Great Purge of the 1930s and the excesses of Soviet police repression, after years of fearful silence, had far-reaching effects that he himself could barely have foreseen. The resulting "thaw" in the Soviet Union saw the release of millions of political prisoners and the "rehabilitation" of many thousands more who had perished.Inevitably, the de-Stalinization movement had repercussions in the communist countries of Eastern Europe, especially Hungary.Yet this leader's decision to crush the Hungarian Revolution by force came largely because of the Hungarian premier Imre Nagy’s decision to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. Aside from this sanguinary exception, this leader allowed a considerable amount of freedom to the European communist parties.
9-The ________ brought change to Czechoslovakia.In late 1989, a wave of democratization swept through Eastern Europe with the encouragement of the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev. Czechoslovakia’s Communist leadership found itself confronted by mass demonstrations in Prague opposed to its policies, and the party soon gave in to the demands for reform. In December, the Communists formed a coalition government with non-Communist opposition groups. A multiparty political system was written into law, the writer and former dissident Vaclav Havel became the country’s new president, and free elections to the Federal Assembly were held in June 1990, with non-Communists winning resounding majorities.With the end of Communist rule and the reemergence of true multiparty democracy, disagreements between the two halves of the country escalated. In particular, Slovaks resisted the Czechs’ preference for rapid privatization of the country’s state-run industries. The results of parliamentary elections in June 1992 highlighted these differences, and talks between Czech and Slovak leaders later that year resulted in the peaceful dissolution of the Czechoslovak federation and the creation of two new countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, on January 1, 1993.
10-According to Confucian tradition, the most honorable class among the peasants, artisans, and merchants was the ______.The scholar-gentry were deemed fit to rule because of their education. The peasants, the majority of the people, were vital for food production. The artisans were allowed artistic expression. Merchants were viewed as caring only for profits and not creating anything of value.
Word Bank: Furs,Rice, Muslims, Catherine the Great, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Angkor, Zaibatsu, Wudi, Yellow Turban, Sikhism
1-The Chinese emperor who started the imperial university was _______.This emperor made Confucianism the official philosophy of China and his university encouraged Confucian thought.In his imperial university, young men studied for rigorous examinations for government service.Those who passed the examinations found employment in the civil service.Ultimately, the examination system created a bureaucracy based on merit, a meritocracy, as opposed to a bureaucracy based on birth.
2-As the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy, the gap between rich and poor grew dangerously large.Poverty, famine, and pestilence contributed to rebellions.The ________ Rebellion was a popular uprising that contributed to the fall of the Han Dynasty.Led by a Daoist faith healer, the rebellion was directed against the tyrannical officials who dominated the emperor.The rebellion itself was controlled within a year but weakened the dynasty which ultimately fell to invaders.
3-The most important new crop introduced into China during the Tang and Song period was fast-ripening or Champa _______.This new strain from Vietnam, along with improved methods of water control and irrigation, spectacularly increased agricultural yields. This new crop was more drought resistant; it could be grown in more places; and it ripened even faster than previous strains. It greatly benefited the Chinese people.It is also important to remember that to feed China’s city people, most Chinese had to remain farmers.This is why many years later when Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party won the civil war, they did so because they had the support of the peasants, China’s majority.
4-Srivijaya and ________ made deep commitments to Buddhism.Srivijaya was a maritime and commercial kingdom that flourished between the 7th and the 13th century in the Malay Archipelago. The kingdom soon extended its influence and controlled the Strait of Malacca.Srivijaya was also a religious center in the region. It adhered to Mahayana Buddhism and soon became the stopping point for Chinese Buddhist pilgrims on their way to India.The other city also made deep commitments to Buddhism and served as a royal center from which a dynasty of Khmer kings ruled one of the largest, most prosperous, and most sophisticated kingdoms in the history of Southeast Asia.There were many changes in architecture and artistic style in this city, and there was a religious movement from the Hindu cult of the god Shiva to that of Vishnu and then to a Mahayana Buddhist cult devoted to the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.
5-_______ was a syncretic combination of Hinduism and Islam.It was founded in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent by Guru Nanak in the late 15th century. Sikhs do not accept caste but believe in reincarnation and monotheism.
6-Although she was an Enlightened Despot, accepting some Enlightenment ideas like religious freedom yet refusing to part with her absolute power; ________, the tsarina of Russia, in an effort to strengthen her tsarist authority, made a deal by which the nobles or boyars could treat the peasants however they wanted.She realized early in her reign that emancipation of the serfs would never be tolerated by Russian nobles, whom she depended upon for support.As such, she even imposed serfdom on the Ukrainians who had until then been free.
7-The Russians were mainly interested in pushing eastward into Siberia to gain access to _______.Russian occupation began in 1581 with a Cossack expedition.At first the area’s Russian rulers collected tribute, which was paid by the native inhabitants in this commodity as it had been paid to the Mongols.Sadly, many of the Siberian tribes succumbed to exploitation and imported diseases.
8-________ was the organizer of the Seneca Falls Conference.This American leader in the women’s rights movement formulated in 1848 the first organized demand for woman suffrage in the United States.
9-A ______ was the Japanese equivalent of a trust.It was any of the large capitalist enterprises of Japan before World War II, similar to cartels or trusts but usually organized around a single family. One might operate companies in nearly all important areas of economic activity. The Mitsui combine, for example, owned or had large investments in companies engaged in banking, foreign trade, mining, insurance, textiles, sugar, food processing, machinery, and many other fields as well. They even owned banks, which they used as a means for mobilizing capital.
10-In 1946, six thousand people died in the Great Calcutta Killing in a confrontation between Hindus and _______.These communal riots took place in 1946, when the partition of British India became imminent and tensions between these two groups reached their height.
Word Bank: Xiongnu,Tito, Paul, Jati, Taliban, Africa, "Prague Spring", Buddha, Brezhnev, Deng Xiaoping
1-The government of Muhammad Najibullah, who had been put in place in Afghanistan in 1986, was finally overthrown in 1996 by the _______.The Soviets had invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to support an unpopular communist regime.In 1986, amid continuing hostilities between the Islamic resistance and Soviet forces, the Afghan prime minister was ousted by the Soviets for his ineffectiveness and replaced by the former chief of the Afghan Secret Police, Mohammad Najibullah.However, fighting continued and eventually, this group of Islamic fundamentalists rose to power in Afghanistan.
2-Alexander Dubcek’s _________ promised "socialism with a human face".This brief period of liberalization in Czechoslovakia under Alexander Dubcek in 1968 granted the press greater freedom of expression and rehabilitated victims of political purges during the Joseph Stalin era.Many Czechs, however, wanted real democracy.The Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact viewed these demands as counterrevolutionary.Soviet armed forces quickly occupied the country and ended this brief period of "socialism with a human face".
3-The communist Yugoslavian leader, Josip Broz - more popularly known as _______, refused to follow Russian direction in foreign policy and was eventually expelled from the Soviet bloc in 1948.He was the chief architect of the "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until 1991 and he was the first Communist leader in power to defy Soviet hegemony.He was a backer of independent roads to socialism (sometimes referred to as "national communism") and a promoter of the policy of nonalignment (a policy of neutrality) between the two hostile blocs in the Cold War.
4-The _______ Doctrine was also known as the Doctrine of Limited Sovereignty.After the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, the Soviet leadership justified the use of force in Prague under this Doctrine.It stated that Moscow had the right to intervene in any country where a communist government had been threatened. It also became the primary justification for the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
5-The situation wherein national boundaries were artificial conveniences that did not correspond to economic or ethnic divisions was most common in _______.European imperialists ultimately created national boundaries that still affect these nations today.
6-_______ brought free market reforms to China. As the most powerful individual in China from the death of Mao Zedong until his death in 1997, this individual restructured China’s economy.He abandoned many orthodox communist doctrines and attempted to incorporate elements of the free-enterprise system into the Chinese economy.As he noted, "Whether a cat is white or black makes no difference, as long as it catches mice."
7-The leading figure in the expansion of Christianity beyond Judaism was _______ of Tarsus.Although he spent many years persecuting Christians, he is often considered to be the second most important person in the history of Christianity.After his conversion, he directed much of his missionary activity to the conversion of Gentiles or non-Jews.
8-_______ believed that all life involves suffering; that desire is the cause of suffering; and that a life lived in accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path eliminates desire.The two main schools of this belief system are Theravada (also known as Hinayana) and Mahayana.
9-One of the biggest transformations of the Hindu caste system was the rise of guilds which essentially served as _______.Of course, the Hindu caste system has four Varnas or castes: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras with birth determining membership in each Varna and no mobility across caste lines during one's lifetime.However,in different parts of India, certain groups within varnas have claimed certain occupations.Within the Vaishyas Varna, for instance, there are these groups of bakers, sheep herders, metal workers, and so on.
10-The greatest military threat to the Han was the ________ Confederation. These nomadic pastoral people who at the end of the 3rd century B.C.E. formed a great tribal league was able to dominate much of Central Asia for more than 500 years. China’s wars against this Confederation, who were a constant threat to the country’s northern frontier throughout this period, led to the Chinese conquest of much of Central Asia.
Word Bank: Humanist,Tamerlane, Young Turks, Islam, Chandragupta Maurya, Mestizo, Camel, Aborigines, Mongols, Cuzco
1-The Abbasid dynasty finally came to an end in 1258 when they were overrun by the _______.Known as the golden age of Islam with advances in science, mathematics, and literature, this dynasty succeeded the Umayyad dynasty and controlled much of the Islamic world from 750-1258.Yet by the tenth century, Abbasid political unity had already begun to weaken and independent or semi-autonomous local dynasties were established in Egypt, Iran, and other parts of the realm.Of course, these nomadic invaders from the steppes of Central Asia brought the entire dynasty to its end.
2-Mahmud Ghazan was the most prominent of the Il-Khans to rule the Mongol dynasty in Persia. Reigning from 1295 to 1304, he is best known for the conversion of his state to _______ and his wars against Egypt.Ghazan reorganized the administration of the Il-Khanate to reflect its new official faith. He replaced traditional Mongol law with Sharia and adopted the faith’s military codes for the Mongol army. At Ghazan's death in 1304, virtually all Mongol elements in the Il-Khanate had been absorbed into this new religious culture.
3-_______, the Turkish ruler who weakened the Golden Horde, sacked Delhi, and launched campaigns in southwest Asia and Anatolia, was the last of the mighty conquerors of Central Asia to achieve military successes.In 1402, he captured the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I on the battlefield in 1402.Above all, he was a master of the military techniques developed by Genghis Khan, using every weapon in the military and diplomatic armory of the day. He never missed an opportunity to exploit the weakness (political, economic, or military) of the adversary or to use intrigue, treachery, and alliance to serve his purposes.
4-_______ moral philosophers believed that people could lead morally virtuous lives while participating in the world.This philosophy emphasized the human realm.Unlike medieval European society that emphasized religious life, Renaissance humanist philosophers emphasized the inherent worth and dignity of the individual.
5-One of the central factors in the establishment of trans-Saharan trade was the domestication of the ________.Around the fifth century, Berber-speaking people began crossing the Sahara Desert. From the eighth century onward, annual trade caravans followed routes later described by Arabic authors with minute attention to detail. Gold, sought from the western and central Sudan, was the main commodity of the trans-Saharan trade. The rise of the Soninke Empire of Ghana appears to be related to the beginnings of the trans-Saharan gold trade.This gold for salt trade was significant for the rise of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
6-The first ruler to unify India was _________.He was the first emperor to unify most of India under one administration. Credited with saving the country from maladministration and freeing it from foreign domination, he fasted to death in sorrow for his famine-stricken people.Traditionally, Chandragupta was influenced to accept Jainism by the sage Bhadrabahu I, who predicted the onset of a 12-year famine. When the famine came, Chandragupta made efforts to counter it, but, dejected by the tragic conditions prevailing, he left to spend his last days in the service of Bhadrabahu at Shravana Belgola, a famous religious site in southwest India, where Chandragupta fasted to death.
7-The capital of the Inca Empire was ________.The Incas imposed order by taking hostages from the conquered tribes’ ruling classes; they conquered a vast empire on the Andes Mountains of South America; they engaged in terrace farming on the mountains; they used the quipu or a mnemonic aid consisting of small cords with knots; and they provided food and shelter for the sick, the widowed, and the orphaned.
8-The cultural and religious traditions of the Australian ________ did not diffuse much beyond their own region.Australia is the only continent where the entire indigenous population maintained a single kind of adaptation - hunting and gathering - into modern times. Although they have many cultural features in common with other hunter-gatherer peoples, these individuals are unique in the degree of contrast between the complexity of their social organization and religious life and the relative simplicity of their material technologies.They, also like the indigenous peoples of the Americas, were negatively affected by the introduction of European diseases.
9-The term _______ refers to an individual of indigenous and European parentage in colonial Latin America.In colonial Latin America, the social hierarchy ranked peninsulares or individuals born in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) as the elite followed by creoles (born in the Americas of European ancestry), this group, and Native American Indians.
10-The _______ advocated universal suffrage, emancipation of women, and free public religion.These nationalists like Mustafa Kemal led to radical changes in Turkey, the nation that emerged from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire after World War I.
Word Bank: Monsoon Winds,Swahili, Córdoba, Mandate System, Axum, Confucius, John Maynard Keynes, Shi Huangdi, Olmecs, Silla
1-The _______ angered the Arab world because it was little more than a glorified form of imperialism.It also made the rest of the world think that the Europeans were intent on reestablishing imperialism.Following the defeat of Germany and Ottoman Turkey in World War I, their Asian and African possessions, which were judged not yet ready to govern themselves, were distributed among the victorious Allied powers under the authority of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations (itself an Allied creation). The mandate system was a compromise between the Allies’ wish to retain the former German and Turkish colonies and their pre-Armistice declaration (November 5, 1918) that annexation of territory was not their aim in the war.
2-In response to the Great Depression, the economist ________ urged governments to expand the money supply and undertake public works to create jobs.It is important to remember that a rise in unemployment and a dramatic decrease in industrial production and trade occurred during the Great Depression and caused very real human suffering on a global scale.Prior to the Great Depression, economists believed in laissez-faire or that governments should not intervene in the market for the market would fix itself.However, this economist believed that government intervention in a severe financial contraction could alleviate human suffering and restore an economy.
3-_______ was a Christian kingdom in Ethiopia.The variety of Christianity practiced in this kingdom was Coptic.At its height (3rd-6th century), it became the greatest market of northeastern Africa; its merchants traded as far as Alexandria and beyond the Nile River.
4-The success and timing of trade through the Indian Ocean basin largely depended upon understanding the rhythms of the _______.The Arabs sailed in the Indian Ocean with its help.Of course, a factor in determining trade routes is the necessity of understanding weather patterns.Indeed, as trade intensified between Africa and Asia, powerful city-states flourished along the eastern coast of Africa. These included Kilwa, Sofala, Mombasa, and Malindi.
5-Many of the merchants from the Arabian Peninsula, India, and Southeast Asia stayed in the city-states of East Africa as a result of Indian Ocean Trade. Interracial marriages were not uncommon, and gradually over the centuries, a new and distinct ethnic group developed, known as the ________. Today millions of people of this ethnic group live in the nations of East Africa, where the language is widely spoken.The city-states of this ethnic group steadily grew and prospered, and were a major world economic power by the 1400s.The language a Bantu language with Arabic words.
6-_______ was the Chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of Confucianism and his burning of books.This ruler established a precedent for centralized imperial rule in China by disarming regional military forces.As a proponent of Legalism, he believed that clear and strict laws were essential to control human nature.He also believed that the foundation of a state’s strength was found in its armed forces and agriculture.
7-_______, whose practical philosophy is best expressed in the Analects, believed that proper balance and order in human relationships would bring about social and political harmony.He worked to create junzi, "superior individuals," who possess the needed education and dedication to staff governmental positions.Certain core values such as ren (benevolence), li (propriety), and xiao (filial piety) were central to his philosophy.This philosophy greatly influenced the Han Dynasty and many subsequent dynasties in China.
8-The ______ were the first recognized society in Mesoamerica.This civilization stretches as far back as 1200 B.C.E. and featured important political and religious centers such as San Lorenzo, La Venta, and Tres Zapotes.Colossal human-like heads, from sculpted basalt, remain their most characteristic creation.Their invention of a calendar would later be copied by succeeding Mesoamerican societies.There is no evidence of a complete system of writing, although scholars suspect that the Olmecs experimented with writing and used written symbols to store information.Although it is still a mystery, it is believed that the Olmecs destroyed their own centers at San Lorenzo and La Venta.By 400 B.C.E., they were in a state of decline.
9-The _______ dynasty in Korea copied China in many ways, it adopted Confucian thought; many Koreans converted to Buddhism; and Korea formed a tributary relationship with China.However, it never established a bureaucracy based on merit.In Korea, birth determined status not merit.In Korea, aristocratic birth mattered.
10-The capital city of al-Andalus was _______.In 711, an army of Arabs and Berbers from North Africa, united by their faith in Islam, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and arrived on the Iberian Peninsula. In less than a decade, the Muslims brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under their domination; they called the Iberian lands they controlled al-Andalus.Although the borders of al-Andalus shifted over the centuries, the Muslims remained a powerful force on the peninsula for almost eight hundred years, until 1492, when they were expelled by Ferdinand and Isabella, the king and queen of the newly unified Spain.
Word Bank: Vladimir Lenin,Sufis, Grand Canal, Theodor Herzl, Ibn Rushd, Cecil Rhodes, Emiliano Zapata, T.E. Lawrence, Ashoka, James Watt
1-________ was the founder of Zionism.Witnessing the Dreyfus affair in France helped crystallize his belief in the importance of creating a Jewish state. In the Dreyfus affair, a Jewish officer named Alfred Dreyfus had been falsely charged with the crime of giving French military documents to German agents. The ensuing political controversy produced an outburst of anti-Semitism among the French public. The founder of Zionism said in later years that it was the Dreyfus affair that had made a Zionist out of him. He believed that so long as anti-Semitism existed, assimilation would be impossible, and the only solution for the majority of Jews would be organized emigration to a state of their own.Of course, he was not the first to conceive of a Jewish state. Orthodox Jews had traditionally invoked the return to Zion (Israel) in their daily prayers.
2-The Sui construction of the _______ would have important economic implications well into the 20th century.This series of waterways in eastern and northern China links Hangzhou with Beijing. Some 1,100 miles in length, it is the world’s longest man-made waterway.It was built to enable successive Chinese regimes to transport surplus grain from the agriculturally rich Yangtze) and Huai river valleys to feed the capital cities and large standing armies in northern China.
3-The Mauryan emperor _______ fought his bloodiest battle against the Kalinga.The sufferings that the war inflicted on the defeated people moved him to such remorse that he renounced armed conquests. It was at this time that he came in touch with Buddhism and adopted it. Under its influence and prompted by his own dynamic temperament, he resolved to live according to, and preach, the dharma (the teachings of the Buddha) and to serve his subjects and all humanity.Toward all religious sects he adopted a policy of respect and guaranteed them full freedom to live according to their own principles, but he also urged them to exert themselves for the "increase of their inner worthiness."
4-The _______ believed in an emotional and mystical union with Allah.Islamic mysticism is called ta-awwuf (literally, "to dress in wool") in Arabic, but it has been called Sufism in Western languages since the early 19th century.These Islamic mystics have been responsible for a large-scale missionary activity all over the world and have spread Islam to many lands.
5-________ or Averroës was the Islamic thinker who studied Aristotle and whose thought, in turn, influenced the rise of European scholasticism (Scholasticism focused on offering detailed philosophical and rational justifications for religious belief).This influential Islamic religious philosopher integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought.
6-________ was a Mexican agrarian rebel who fought for the goals of La Reforma.He fought in guerrilla actions in the Mexican Revolution and in the course of his campaigns; he distributed lands taken from the haciendas (large estates or plantations), which he frequently burned without compensation. He often ordered executions and expropriations, and his forces did not always abide by the laws of war.But he believed that the land belonged to those who worked the land.He said, "Tierra y Libertad."
7-________ was a leading British imperialist who founded a colony in Africa.He was prime minister of Cape Colony (1890-96) and organizer of the giant diamond-mining company De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd. (1888). By his will he established the Rhodes scholarships at Oxford (1902).He spent much time planning and organizing the colony that was to bear his name; Rhodesia.He also dreamed of a Cairo to Cape Town railway line.
8-________ improved the design of the steam engine.In fact, a unit of measurement of electrical and mechanical power is named in his honour.The steam engine can easily be considered the single most important invention of the entire industrial revolution. There is not one part of industry present in today's society that can be examined without coming across some type of reference or dependence upon the steam engine.
9-________ worked with Ibn Ali Hussain to lead the Bedouins of Arabia against Ottoman rule. This British archaeological scholar was sent in 1916 as a liaison officer to join the Great Arab Revolt, led by Prince Feisal. He took money and guns and helped keep the Revolt alive. Using guerrilla tactics, he struck at Turkish lines of communication but avoided direct confrontation.
10-The main difference between the philosophies of Karl Marx and ________ was the Bolshevik leader’s belief that the working class or proletariat was incapable of developing revolutionary consciousness on its own.He argued that the proletariat revolution could only occur in a pre-industrial society such as Russia if stimulated by a small but dedicated group of visionaries.He believed in the necessity of a "vanguard of the revolution".
1-From _______, the Atlantic Slave trade radically transformed the lives of captured Africans.After Columbus’ voyages and the subsequent conquest of the Americas, African slaves replaced a dying indigenous population in the Americas.The production on American plantations of tropical produce, of which sugar was the most important, and especially the marketing of this produce in Western Europe, were extremely profitable activities. But plantation agriculture in the tropics required large and regular supplies of cheap labor. America did not have these, but, just across the Atlantic, western Africa seemed to have relatively great quantities of productive labor. In the earliest years of this trade, the Portuguese had begun to transport some African slaves to supplement the meager labor resources of their own country (especially of the southern provinces they had reconquered from the Moors), and their own plantations in Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and, ultimately, on the islands of the Gulf of Guinea had come to be dependent on African slave labor. The Spaniards, and subsequently other Europeans, in America came to look to Africa to make good their labor shortage.
2-In ________, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople.The siege and conquest of Constantinople and its transformation into the Ottoman capital of Istanbul marked an important new stage in Ottoman history.Due to its location on the crossroads between Europe and Asia, this former capital of the Byzantine Empire had been a thriving commercial city.Moreover, the possession of Constantinople stimulated in Sultan Mehmed a desire to place under his dominion not merely the Islamic and Turkic worlds but also a re-created Byzantine Empire and, perhaps, the entire world of Christendom.
3-From _______, Buddhism spread in China.This Indian religion, founded by Siddhartha Gautama in the 5th century B.C.E., stressed the causation and cessation of suffering.With the collapse of the Han Dynasty in China and a subsequent period of disunity, this foreign religion found increasing favor among the Chinese.Perhaps it was its Eightfold Path; a path to ending suffering that appealed to the Chinese in a difficult time.
4-In _______, Vasco da Gama arrived in India after circumnavigating Africa.This Portuguese navigator opened up the sea route from Western Europe to Asia by way of the Cape of Good Hope.Of course, this led to the Portuguese actively entering Indian Ocean trade and through the use of gunpowder weapons, controlling significant aspects of the trade.It also led to other Europeans following da Gama’s route and directly entering the lucrative trade with Asia.
5-From _______, Louis XIV reigned in France.This absolute monarch known for his famous comment, "L'état, c'est moi" or "I am the state," made it abundantly clear that he ruled without any limits to his power.Of course, later in history during the Age of Reason, philosophers like Montesquieu would challenge absolutism and argue for a separation of powers.But when Louis XIV reigned, it was believed that kings ruled by divine right and as such, no person or document could limit a king’s power, at least not in France.Of course, the English had managed to attempt to limit the king’s power through the medieval document known as the Magna Carta and later in France; a revolution would eventually limit the king’s power and lead to the execution of Louis XVI.Sometimes "L'état, c'est moi" is challenged.
6-In _______, the year that World War II ended, a new peace-keeping organization was created. The United Nations was the second multipurpose international organization established in the 20th century that was worldwide in scope and membership. Its predecessor, the League of Nations, was created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and disbanded in 1946. Headquartered in New York City, the United Nations also has offices in Geneva, Vienna, and other cities.In addition to maintaining peace and security, other important objectives of the United Nations include developing friendly relations among countries based on respect for the principles of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; achieving worldwide cooperation to solve international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems; respecting and promoting human rights; and serving as a center where countries can coordinate their actions and activities toward these various ends.
7-In ________, the Soviet Union collapsed.The communist system had proved ineffective.Under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union’s last leader, the country was in a situation of severe stagnation. Recognizing this, Gorbachev introduced reforms. On one level, he initiated a policy of glasnost, or freedom of speech. On the other level, he began a program of economic reform known as perestroika, or rebuilding. What Gorbachev did not realize was that by giving people complete freedom of expression; he was unwittingly powerful emotions that had been pent up for decades.Ultimately, with increased freedoms, people voiced their desire to be freed from communist rule.
8-From _______, Mohandas K. Gandhi led nonviolent resistance to British imperialism in India.Gandhi believed in Satyagraha or a truth force that would ultimately triumph.Using nonviolent tactics like boycotts and civil disobedience, Gandhi made it abundantly clear that a handful of British administrators could not control millions of Indians if those Indians refused to cooperate.Indeed, that is what Gandhi organized: nonviolent noncooperation campaigns like the boycott of British cloth and the illegal making of salt.Ironically, a pinch of salt did topple the British Empire in India.
9-_______ is sometimes referred to as the Year of Africa.Yes, in one momentous year, 17 African nations gained independence from European colonial rule.Indeed by the end of this year, there would be a total of twenty-seven independent African nations. Of course, European engagement in Africa began in the mid-15th century when Portuguese traders came in search of gold. By the end of the next century, the Portuguese were trading in African slaves (with many ultimately sent to the Americas), but large-scale colonization did not occur until later. In the late 1800s, explorers uncovered the riches of the continent's interior, including diamonds, rubber, and iron, setting off what became known as the "scramble for Africa."Finally, by this year, European colonization was coming to an end.
10-In ________, Germany was unified.It is important to remember that when the United States announced its independence from Great Britain in 1776, Central Europe was a fragmented area of roughly 300 sovereign, independent states (kingdoms, duchies, principalities, free cities, etc.). The German states were bound together in a loose political entity known as the Holy Roman Empire, which dated to the era of Charlemagne in the 800s. By the late eighteenth century, the Holy Roman Empire was, as Voltaire remarked, "Neither holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire."Under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, the Prime Minister of Prussia, German unification was achieved by the force of Prussia ("Blood and Iron"), and enforced from the top-down, meaning that it was not an organic movement that was fully supported and spread by the popular classes but instead was a product of Prussian royal policies.